Die Geschichte des Deutschtums in Czarnko'w und Umgebung, by Karl Otto

(The Story of the German Culture in Czarnikau and Vicinity)

Enlarged Offprint of the "Agricultural Calendar for Poland", Posen, "Historical Society for Posen", 1938. 57 pages. (Our Homeland: popular written series in support of the German homeland-building and family tradition in Poland, edited by Dr. Kurt Lück and Dr. Alfred Lattermann, volume 3.) [Includes a map of the Czarnikau area, 13 pictures, and a bibliography]


Extracted & translated by Posen-L subscriber Sue Wolf, 2000 (Other contributions by Sue Wolf)
[Information in brackets added by Sue Wolf] Not all of the text was translated, some of the non-translated material is replaced with just the heading and/or a description.


The Netze district had been affected only very slightly by the first German immigration surge in the 13th century: the Posener, provincial ruler Zaremba, a gentleman from Filehne, had founded the villages of Rosko and Dratzig to the left of the Netze in 1227 and the city of Filehne in 1230, near to his manor-house. The second German immigration in the 17th and 18th century, however, included the Netze district to an especially great degree.

Many different economic causes affected the Polish nobility, who followed the earlier examples of the kings and monasteries and encouraged the Germans to settle in their area, or assisted them in this, as the case may be. Many areas were still almost entirely uninhabited, like the marshy Netze valley and the sandy forest areas on both sides of the river. The profits for the landlords from these areas were negligible, so that was bound to change only when farmer-settlers came to each locality. However, they also hoped for tangible profits from the establishment of new cities in accordance with the German rule. And as many of the already existing cities only prolonged a miserable existence, the Polish landlords also attempted to help them up, as they settled the Germans and founded numerous so-called "new cities".

As with many other cities, in the 17th and 18th centuries Czarnikau also received a great increase in population from immigrants from the west. Certainly, from Adam Czarnkowski's charter, which was mentioned and is unfortunately lost, it proves that around 1600 Germans were again resident in Czarnikau. However, heavier immigration set in, as many Evangelicals, especially from Silesia, found themselves compelled to immigrate in the course of the Thirty Years War against religious oppression, and as the landlord, Christoph Grzymultowski, in a 14 October 1645 charter to the German residents, approved the Evangelical affirmations of their old laws and allowed freedom from taxes for 6 years for all new settlers.

An enormous stream of Silesian immigrants poured forth into the south of the province. However, the last transmission went into our district and still further towards the north. So the greater part of the immigrants in our city were likely to have come from Lower Silesia, especially since there were many clothmakers among them. This craft's branch was first established in our district by them. In Silesia at that time clothmaking certainly was in its golden age. However, our city also received immigration from Brandenburg (especially from the Neumark) and Pomerania.

[city business and governmental matters - 1 paragraph]

In the charter of the Tailor Guild from15 April 1684 Franz Bolte was named under the masters who applied for the charter. In the master book of the guild in the Polish time appeared the following German names: Jakob Radke and Libs 1689, Christoph Turfelder 1690, Gregor Mantov (doubtless Mantey) 1693, Tobias Berent 1694 (1703 next to senior), Andreas Nigma (low German = Neumann) 1694, Christoph Loogstet 1699 (1711 senior), Paul Witt (from Fitzerie), Martin Locher, Adalbert Stiegler (from Woldenberg), Mathias Spitzer (from Schönlanke) 1701, Andreas Higmann (bench senior) 1706, Johann Luter 1710, (1732 next to senior), Martin Relich, Gottfried Freihude ("from the land beyond the Oder"), Mathias Schmidt (senior) 1718, Johann Hendrich 1719, Martin Hegen 1728, Friedrich Emanuel Hamel 1729 (1743 senior), Adalbert Schmidt 1732, Johann Mitzler 1734, Christoph Spitzer, Johann Manthei (senior) 1735, Johann Christoph Schilling 1736 (1748 senior), Joseph Graff 1736, Mathias Luter 1939, Anton Müller, Martin Krenz 1740, Paul Fercho 1741, Johann Glaser 1742, Johann Marschner, David Predel (from Birnbaum) 1743, Martin Kage, Michael Ölke (from Fitzerie) 1745, Johann Hencke, Mathäus Karl Kientop (from Siediyk - probably Stieglitz), Martin Wanke, Martin Kühn (from Runau) 1746, Peter Konrad Schmidt, Martin Hintz, Christoph Jarr, Martin Radke (from Siediyk -probably Stieglitz) 1747, Christian Scharr (from Brandenburg) 1749, 1762 senior), Andreas Luter, Peter Kientrop (from Putzig) 1751, Peter Lietke (from Filehne Holland) 1754, Johann Valentin Heisen 1756, Gabriel Manthei 1759 (1764 next to senior), Johann Friedrich Kirst 1762 (1775 next to senior), Daniel Seydel 1762.

In the year 1632 the Catholic parish church changed into a seminary. Under the canons are found a whole multitude with German names, such as in 1630 Martin King, in 1695 Johann Foltmann, Johann Flintze, Georg Krantz, Martin Foltmann, Lorenz Johann Rhode, Mathias Zonebert (Sonnenberg), in 1743 Kasimir Teclaw (Tetzlaff), in 1747-50 Johann Cyzmer (Ziesmer), Joseph Szneller (Schneller), in 1762 Joseph Rontz, who was later the prior in Filehne, in 1762-91 Peter Westphal, in 1791-1816 Jakob Schwante. However, above all, there were also some canons who celebrated the divine service in the German language, such as Johann Ressell in 1716-21 in the Andreas Church, which at one time stood on the Filehne road in the old Catholic churchyard, which today is still marked by a large cross. Moreover, the canons Jakob Ladwig in 1719, Gaspar Andersohn in 1732-46 and Johann Madrowski in 1735 were "German preachers". Whenever the Catholic church put in an appearance German divine services were established, so a great number of Catholic Germans must have immigrated to our city.

The Evangelical German immigrants soon built their own church. It is assumed that this stood in the midst of the old churchyard, which stretched between the Filehne and Wronke roads from the (today) King's estates to Mill Street, and was used until 1818. In the year 1711 the house of God was taken away from the Evangelicals, and their minister, Martin Rottke, who was simultaneously the teacher, was forbidden any religious ceremony by the Posen bishop. A document in the Evangelical parish archives in Czarnikau of 7 July 1712 reports about this affair, which document is simultaneously the oldest still surviving about the Evangelical life in our city. This document was signed by Franciszek Czychyrowicz [Czylovowicz?] as mayor, Johann Holz and Michael Sawall as councillor relatives and by Michael Steinke, Andreas Tetzlaff, Daniel Abraham and Jeremias Wigleb - probably as church elders. That the Polish mayor had signed the German document and had certified it with the city and council seal, and that there were at least two German councilmen, testified to the strong influence that the Germans already had in the city at that time. In 1719 the Evangelical house of God was destroyed. The Evangelicals were forced to search out other church locations which had been spared the same fate. Suitable were Peterawe, Gramsdorf, and Grünfier on the other side of the Netze. Their marriages and baptisms, however, had to take place in the Catholic church. This obligation was stipulated of them more often by this time in the articles of incorporation of new villages. Their dead they could bury alone, so that death records for the Evangelicals were not found in the Catholic church books.

In the migration of the rural German immigrants of the 17th and 18th centuries the district north of the Netze was settled first by Germans. The movement towards the south spread into the Netze district via the territory of today's Deutsch Krone district. The first establishment here was the village of Schönlanke in 1580 (the city arose only later), Lemnitz followed, then Putzig in 1586. Founders were the brothers Andreas, Peter, Franz and Johann Czarnkowski. A short time afterwards the German villages of Steiglitz, Straduhn, Zaskerhütte, Theerofen, Niekosken, Neudorf, Behle, and Hammer originated.

However, soon the stream of German immigrants also pushed on into the district on this side of the Netze. The Netze marsh was crossed over at Usch, and the first German village founded here was Kahlstadt, Kolmar district. It was founded in the year 1600 as a Schulzdorf.

The settlers came mostly from Brandenburg and Pomerania, likewise those of the so-called "Holländereien". Actual Dutchmen in our region had nothing to do with the establishment of dairy farms -- or as we later said "Hauländereien". The name "Holländerei" was only another concept of government which expressed that the village had been founded according to the Holländer law. The main difference between these settlers and the Schulzdörfer lay in that, according to a Holländerei, all settlers jointly entered into contracts with the founders and themselves chose a mayor from their midst.

The settlers were for the most part Evangelical, and, although the intolerance against the Protestants was busy rising more and more, and the Czarnkowskis themselves were strict Catholics, yet they vested in the newcomers free practice of religion during village foundings.

In the year 1623, Adam Czarnkowski, who had already settled a number of villages with Germans on the other side of the Netze, established the German village of Fitzerie, whose name originally read Bitisrige. In 1719 Konrad Freymark was mayor there, in 1708 Adam Konkel was named. Adam Czarnkowski's widow, Catharina, born Leszczynska, underwrote the founding charter of Radom on 10 February 1630, together with her son, Franz Czarnkowski. Two entrepreneurs, who finalized the contract with them, were Nikolaus Konkel (Nikel Ka~kal) and Martin Abraham (Abrahamowicz). Both committed themselves to settle 10 complete farms, and for these they erected the buildings. About 1700 the one free mayor estate passed over into the possession of Mathias Schendel from Beyersdorf. Since that time that estate was in the possession of the family, right up to the World War.

Shortly before, Schrotthaus and Beyersdorf were also founded by the same founders, likewise as Schulzdörfer. The mayor estate of the last-named village was bought by Christian Schendel from Peter Czarnkowski on 16 June 1637 in exchange for 800 Polish Gulden, no doubt because the old mayor had fled. The former mayor estate is still today, exactly 300 years since then, in the possession of this family. Some names which appear around 1700 in Beyersdorf are: Bartholomäus Missall, Christoph Mathews, Martin Hartwig, Martin Meier, Michael Zellmer, Johann Mathews.

Althütte was probably founded in 1631. Ernst Kunkel was mentioned first in 1663 as Mayor, when he purchased a farm formerly owned by the fleeing Jakob Wekwert. This Ernst Kunkel was a son of the mayor of Berlin, Johann Kunkel. Thus this family had had possession of three mayor's estates at the same time: Radom, Belsin and Althütte. In Althütte the mayor's office was still in the possession of a Kunkel in Prussian times (after 1772). Shortly after 1700 Michael Wandren and Martin Schendel were named as residents of the village. The Evangelical farmers soon built themselves a house of prayer. They had even a pastor of their own. In 1710 David Römisch was ordained for Althütte, Fitzerie and Radom. His successor was George Peckhold. When a universal persecution of all Evangelicals was put into place after 1717, the Althütte church was sealed on Easter Saturday, on 16 April 1718, and the pastor was forbidden his divine service. In 1719 the church was robbed, and also the pastor's house. On 3 November 1719 the church was entirely torn down and burned. The glebe land [cultivatable land belonging to a parish church], donated by the landlords at the time of the community's founding, was taken away from the community and given to the estate owner. The Evangelical places of worship in Radom and Fitzerie suffered likewise. Even the Evangelical church in Kahlstädt, Chodziesen [Kolmar] district, where Milchir Bechner was already employed in 1630 as pastor, was destroyed in 1719, as Christian Janus occupied the position of pastor.

Klempitz was founded in 1687 as a German village by the hereditary lord, Johann Korzbok-Lancki. The founding year of Belsin is not known; a document from the year 1694 mentioned that Katharina Natamowska, founding ruler of Czarnikau, sold the public-house land there to Michael Dreger.

Holländerdorf, indeed, probably had been founded only a little later than Althütte by the Polajewo estate. Its name surely indicates, as a result, that it was founded according to the Holländerrecht by Germans. Many of the names met with there today were already established by the end of the 17th century. Holländerdorf certainly had its own Evangelical house of God, which, however, burned down in the 19th century and was built anew again in 1864.

Likewise, it is assumed of Grützendorf that it was founded about the same time as Althütte and Holländerdorf. Grützendorf, like Holländerdorf, is also today still an almost purely German place. In 1703 Christoph Abraham was the mayor there. Some names of the times of the 1700's: Christoph Meier and Westphal (1695), Christian Blum and Krenz (1696), Jakob Wulf and Martin Müske (1716), taverner Christoph Kitzmann (1717), Martin Müller and Grüning (1725), besides Martin Matz and Urban Peglo. -- Around this time Milkowohauland also probably was founded as a Holländerei.

In spite of the strong persecution of all Evangelicals beginning after 1717, the German settlement continued even further into the 18th century. In 1727 Krutschhauland was founded, and in 1735 Gembitzhauland followed it. In this year the first 13 German colonists arrived at the property of the landlord, Nikolaus von Mielecki in Gembitz, followed soon by others, in order to take over the region, named Micle~cin after him, and make arable land out of sand and swamp. About 1765, the name Gembitzhauland (Ge~bickie Ole~dry) came into use instead of the original place-name. Today, the village is called, in Polish, GÝbiczyn. Each colonist received one hide of land (30 Morgen )[0.6-0.9 acres]. Moreover, as was also normal with settlers, they reserved 1/2 of a tax-free hide for the schoolmaster who would be summoned. The barrel maker also received 1/2 of a tax-free hide. They saved a place to make available for the prayer house and cemetery. The lord of the manor gave the colonists 7 free years. Each had to pay yearly only a tax of 39 Tympfen [Polish coins worth 60 cents each]. They were free of all manual labor and ploughing. But 9 years had scarcely passed when the new landlord, Martin von Radomski, broke the contract and forced the community with harsh measures (driving away the livestock) to accept a new charter, in which the tax was doubled and 12 days of service a year were initiated, in addition to payments of grain and livestock. In 1772 Gembitzhauland fell to Prussia for 3 years, but returned to Poland again in 1775 after a border adjustment. At the second partition [1793], it was again awarded to Prussia. Immediately the community instituted legal proceedings against the charter which had been forced upon them, which they won as well. That charter was revoked and the original one of 1735 put into force again. So the Hauländer could breathe somewhat freely again. In 1780 they built a prayer house, but it burned down in 1814 and was later replaced by a church. King Frederick William IV donated 2 iron bells to the community in 1835, to which, later on, followed yet a third. In 1893 today's church replaced the one which again burned down. Gembitzhauland had approximately 80 households and about 450 souls. It belongs to the few communities which even today are still almost purely German.

In the same year of 1735 Germans were settled according to the Holländerrecht into the village of Gembitz, which had already existed for a long time. The new settlement later blended in with the old one. In the 1735 charter the new colonists were freed of all military service. However, they had to pay 2 Gulden per hide as a tithe payment to the appropriate Catholic parish. About 1740, Johann Lehmann was the mayor in Gembitz. Germans had already previously immigrated into the old village. So in 1714 we find Elias Schendel, and in 1721 an Andreas Schendel.

The malt mill [Malzmühle] at Czarnikau, at which, according to charter, all brewers and distillers of the city had to have their malt and groats ground, has been in the possession of the Manske family since 1719. The previous owner seemed to have been a Pudwelt, because Albert Manske married a Katharina Pudwelt from Mahlmühle in 1711. Until 1873 the water mill and the outworks at Mahlmühle, purchased as well in 1760, were in possession of the Manskes. Then the ownership was divided and handed over into the ownership of the Busse and Schedler families.

Besides the settlement into new villages by the Germans there was an immigration of Germans into many Polish communities, so, for example, into the old villages of Walkowitz and Briesen, where the Germans then constituted a not inconsiderable minority. The forefathers of the families living in Walkowitz today were established there up to around 1700. In 1664 there was an Andreas Kotenbeutel in Milkowo; about the same time representatives of the Schendel family appeared there and in Sokolowo. In 1695 a Christoph Krüger moved into Mlynkowo. In the same year Christoph Bethke was mayor in Pripkowo, and in 1722 Konrad Freymark. In the year 1732 the Gultsch water mill was owned by Bartholomäus Mittelstädt, who married Elisabeth Abraham from Grützendorf in 1724.

Nevertheless, no resident Pole would be driven away by the gradual immigration of Germans into Polish villages, as each settlement could only take place with approval of the underlying Polish authority. On the contrary the German farmers would only be settled on plots of land that were lying fallow or were left behind by their owners.

In the year 1768 it began to crystallize for the Evangelicals. Warsaw treaties granted full religious liberty again at last. The joy over this was great. However, it was not bound to last long. Fear attacked the residents of the city without warning when the landlord abruptly allowed an Evangelical dyer to discharge the leader, for a reason which is no longer determinable, and appropriated his property. Since they didn't feel safe in the city any more, 30 of the wealthy German families secretly had left the city on the very next night. They turned to Driesen, where Brenckenoff gave them possession of its barracks "at the fortress", which were standing unoccupied, where they could again attend to their business. A short time later the whole city went up in flames. As if there were not yet enough misfortune, firsthand news came afterwards that the Bar Confederacy, which was against any equality of rights for the dissidents, also had met with imitation in Greater Poland, and Confederation troops had been formed which marched through the countryside. Thus, in September 1768 around 500 confederates came through our city. Furthermore, they marched to Filehne. It was reported that there they confiscated everything that they needed for the war, and also robbed and plundered. The Evangelicals streamed in hordes over the border. In December a Confederation squad defeated at Wronke marched across Czarnikau to West Prussia.

When West Prussia and the Netze district fell to Prussia on 13 September 1772 in the first partition of Poland, Czarnikau, with its nearer neighbors, also came under Prussian rule. The border took its course in such a way that Gembitz, Grützendorf, Holländerdorf, Prusinowo, Lubasch, Sagen, and Krutsch remained in Poland. Althütte, however, came to Prussia. Only the name of businessman and master clothmaker Johann Körner is reported by the administrators of the city during the reign of Frederick the Great. The Netze district at the time had 46 cities; Czarnikau ranked the 4th largest of them. It numbered 1648 residents. Of the 200 city hearths 22 were still not rebuilt from the terrible 1767 fire here. The city council consisted of the mayor, the city judge, the city secretary, and 10 senators. The city didn't have a town hall. Perhaps it had also fallen victim to the fire. Ten thousand dollars were made available by the king for the restoration of the city's livelihood. Czarnikau, along with Filehne, Schönlanke, Usch, Radolin (at the time still a city), Chodziesen, etc., was numbered among the clothmaker cities. However, clothmaking was only pursued by the Germans. The Goldbeck Topography in 1783 numbered the city among the German cities. The official language of the time of the Prussian occupancy was stated to be "mostly Polish". The Magdeburg law was in force as the code. Only from 1799 were statements concerning the numerical strength of the individual confessions declared. At that time, of the 1734 residents there were 717 Evangelicals, 554 Catholics, and 463 Jews.

A considerable percentage of the Catholics were also Germans, because, among other things, the German Catholics complained to the government in 1787 that the German divine service which was promised them was not celebrated any more, after which they restored the old situation. In a list of citizens drawn up by occupancy we find 166 German, 85 Polish or uncertain and 104 Jewish names. The first pharmacist in the city was Karl Ludwig Schmidt, who died in 1777. Wilhelm Friedrich Meissner received a charter on 12 July 1785 for his pharmacy.

In the year 1772 the following villages in the district had German mayors: Belsin (Christoph Mittelstädt), Briesen (Christian Krentz), Fitzerie (Martin Kautz), Althütte (Ernst Kunkel), Kahlstädt (Martin Sitz), Walkowitz (Martin Buss), Klempitz (Andreas Mantwey), Milkowo (Mittelstädt), Lubasch-Hauland (Martin Schendel). Thus, in Grabowka, also called "Bzower Holländer" (today called Antoniewo), lived: Martin and Christian Hasmann, Christian and Friedrich Mantey (later it was Müller); in Krutch: Rewals, Reich, Krüger, Möher, Weckwerth, Redemann, Krüger (innkeeper); cottagers were: Strauch, Morck, Zander, Schlahm, Sommer; tenant farmers were: Steller, Reich, Sxhulz, Krenz, Dreger, Fuhrmann, Stemmer (schoolmaster). The names Weckwerth and Strauch occur often. In Lubasch lived: Troje, Daniel Ölke, Michel Krob, Erdmann Lütt, Christian Krob; Kordt was a cottager, tenant farmers Stillert and Rick. In Staykowo we find: Ketzner, Kropp (occurs repeatedly), Mielke, Wirzchke; tenant farmers were: Rust and Krebs.

[regiments in residence - 1 paragraph]

Since the dissolution of the Evangelical community in the year 1711 the Evangelicals seemed to have to celebrated particularly in Gramsdorf, which was over 20 km away, in order to participate in the divine service and in Holy Communion. Then, in the year 1772, the pastor there, Samuel Gottlieb Benicke, had begun the Evangelical divine service again in Czarnikau, with baptisms, weddings and the celebration of Holy Communion. He had also still a few times held divine service here. However, sermons which were taking place only every few weeks did not satisfy the Evangelicals, and they took steps to found a parish of their own. They were referred to the administration in Marienwerder with their request for a pastor. Already in the next spring their wish was granted. In the person of Karl Gotthilf Schreibers they again had a pastor of their own, who even worked simultaneously as rector of the city school.

A great number of village communities joined the new parish, so that 39 villages attended the parish in times past. Even a row of parishes from places which remained with Poland in 1772 joined. The border, therefore, must have caused little obstruction of traffic in this case.

The first house of God of the re-established community was only a simple prayer house, constructed of framework. They built it, doubtless owing to its combustibility (large fires in 1768 and 1772), even in the year 1773, apart from between gardens, but yet quite in the neighborhood of the marketplace, namely, on the left at the end of Prayer-house Lane, which was named after it (today called Wa~ska), which leads from the market to the brewery garden. The Catholic landlord, Nikolaus von Swinarski from Dembe, who was patron of the church until 1800, magnanimously donated the necessary lumber. The little prayer house served the community until the year 1830, when the present church was built. The pastor's house at the market, on the corner of Kietz Street and Prayer-house Lane, was built by the community as a half-timbered building without the help of the landlord in 1786. After 1854 the building served for a number of years as the town council's building.

The Althütte community in the year 1772 was pure Lutheran, and numbered 229 souls. They had their own schoolmaster, Martin Binke. The support of a schoolmaster in the German villages was considered self-evident. The Belsin community apologized formally when they had to acknowledge, on the occasion of an inquiry, that they momentarily had no teacher. The Althütte community soon exerted a process of restoration of glebe land which had been donated at the village's founding and which had been expropriated at the demolition of the church in 1719, and also reclaimed it. In the year 1778 the community built a prayer house which served its purpose until 1915. Some years ago, when Bubenbanden's interior decoration had already previously been demolished, arson had been attempted, so they had to tear down the prayer house. In 1783 the Evangelical community of Fitzerie also was allowed to build its trim little church, which is still used today. It was, as in Althütte also, built entirely from their own resources.

The Prussian governmental colonization after 1772 had affected our region only slightly. Thus, according to the official tabulation in the years 1776-1798 in the city of Czarnikau, 17 families altogether were settled, of which 12 were from Poland, and of those, four again had Polish names. In the villages of the Deutsch-Krone district, which at that time was large, 31 colonists were settled, in addition to those also belonging to the Czarnikau district; 20 of them came from Polish districts, and 3 of these had Polish names.

Of greater size than the governmental colonization in the Czarnikau district was the private one, which was still originating from the Polish landlords even after the partition. There were always still profit-poor estates, which only could be exploited through the settlement of German colonists. Thus the Polish nobleman, Nikolaus von Swinarski-Dembe used marsh-meadow overgrown with bush for building two colonies out of. Sophienberg originated in 1794 on the other side, and Romanshof in 1796 on this side of the Netze. The colonies received their names after family members of the founder.

[Sophienberg and Romanshof - 2-1/2 paragraphs]

In the year 1841 the establishment of the village of Paliszewo was caused by von Paliszewski, the owner of Gembitz. Fourteen Germans and 11 Poles settled there.

[institution of customs and tolls after the first partition - 1 paragraph]

On 9 July 1807 the city with its neighbors joined the newly established Grand Duchy of Warsaw, but, after the enactment of the Vienna treaty on 9 May 1815 it came back again under Prussian rule. At that time there were 1995 residents: 868 Evangelical, 657 Catholic (including many Germans), and 470 Jews. The city numbered 307 houses. The main occupations, next to farming, were lace making, with which 105 men occupied themselves, cloth making, and also yarn twisting.

[clothmakers emigrating to Poland, especially to the Lodz area. Includes a list of towns from which they emigrated {Czarnikau, Gembitz, Gembitzhauland, Kahlstädt, Klempitz, Radom (near Obersitzko), Lubasz, Grabowker Hauland (Antoniewo), Peterawe, Polajewo, and the city of Obersitzko} and places they went to. Some from Althütte went to Gostynin, for example. - 5-1/2 paragraphs]

Later the migration took the opposite course, to the west, into the interior of the empire, and a new wave of migration in the 18th and 19th centuries had North America as the goal. From 1815 until 1850 the population of the city climbed around 82%, but at present a rebound is taking place. In many years the number of residents has decreased, as in 1871 (around 156 people), in 1887 and in 1895. The numerical proportion of German to Polish population division was altered greatly, to the disadvantage of the former, by the migration of many Germans. In the time of 1855-1885, before the subsequent Filehne district was lopped off, the number of Evangelicals in the whole district increased around 4.57% and that of the Catholics around 3.26%. Whereas in 1815 the Evangelical population of the city amounted to 43.50%, the Catholic, 32.93% and the Jewish, 23.55% of the entire population, by the year 1910 the Evangelical population had climbed to 46.79%, and the Catholic to 44.62%. The Jews amounted to only 8.59% of the population. The proportion of nationalities had changed as strongly in the villages in the short time span of 20 years, as may be shown in the several villages in this table.

 Community

 1885 Census

 1905 Census

 Eveng.

Cath.

Jews

 Eveng.

Cath.

Jews

 Althütte village

 224

33

7

171

61

3

 Belsin village

109

37

 -

36

77

 Fitzerie

376

29

 -

296

44

 Gembitz

371

240

34

348

280

4

 Malzmühle

 39

11

 -

22

25

 -

 Paliszewo

 142

39

 -

101

63

 -

 Smieszkowo village

166

132

1

121

230

4

And so it was in all the villages. Only Romanshof held its own, while in Gembitzhauland, as the only village, the Germans increased somewhat. -- The censuses take into consideration only the confessions of faith. If we consider by them that all Evangelical were Germans and a more assured percentage of the Catholics likewise, then we ourselves can just, to a certain extent, construct an accurate picture.

[the French in Czarnikau, 1807-1813 - 1 paragraph]

Until the year 1816 the Czarnikau district belonged to the great district of Deutsch-Krone. In that year the Czarnikau district was formed. Indeed, in 1818 the cities of Schneidemühl, Usch, Kolmar and Budsin were detached and combined with the new district of Kolmar. A second time, in the year 1887, the Czarnikau district was reduced, as the new Filehne district was created from the west half. Both districts (as far as they lay on the south of the Netze) were rejoined into the Czarnikau district after the acquisition of the Polish nation; the Polajewo region was also attached to it in 1934.

[cholera epidemic, highways, fires, 1848 revolution, writers, schools, businesses, World War I - 11 paragraphs]